NEW PARADIGM OF CO-MANAGEMENT OF MPAs IN INDONESIA, LESSONS LEARNED FROM COREMAP

NEW PARADIGM OF CO-MANAGEMENT OF MPAs IN INDONESIA, LESSONS LEARNED FROM COREMAP

The 2nd Coral Reef Management Symposium on Coral Triangle Areas “Coral Reefs: Global Threats and Opportunities” Swiss-Bel Hotel – Kendari, 28 – 30 September 2011 (In Conjunction with Sail Wakatobi-Belitung)

Suraji[1] , Riyanto B.[2]  and Handoko A.S[3]

 

KEYWORDS: co-management, MPAs, COREMAP, Indonesia.

ABSTRACT

Establishment and Co-management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) which conducted by Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Project (COREMAP) Phase II represents a new paradigm in the process of its development from the top-down approach to bottom-up community-based. This process provides a significant contribution towards the national target of MPAs establishment in Indonesia. The management of MPAs represent the shared responsibility between the central, local government and community.

COREMAP program in Indonesia is an unique program because of wide geographic coverage, Nationally coordinated but decentralized in implementations, multi-stakeholder inclusion, direct quantifiable fisheries benefit, and sound financial management. The process required  the institutional strengthening communities as well as local governments that MPAs can be manage sustainably. The COREMAP’s contributions on establishing of MPAs has significant on MPAs national target.

In the processes, had faces several obstacles, for instances, the reach of agreements of MPAs delineation have been taking time, due to stakeholders which lack of understanding on marine conservation. The process of establishing marine protected areas initiated by village level has legalized by village regulations on enacting of no-take zones. There are five steps of communities-based process of no take areas establishment. There are introducing and socialization program in 1-6 month, to develop communities capacity in 2-4 month, conducting public consultations 3-6 month, crating village regulation and approval 3-6 month, and implementing no-take areas management in 6-18 month. The networks of village level MPAs also functioning as no take area of District MPA that managed by District Government.

Nevertheless, the process of establishment of MPAs with the new paradigm approach has increased the motivation and consciousness (self-awareness) in communities to initiate in managing marine resources through sustainable manner. With a new paradigm, and in line with emerging of marine issues, that have been strengthening the local wisdoms values of marine resource utilization, as well as increasing the sense of belonging in the management of marine resources in a sustainable manner at local community level (grass-roots) and local/regional governments. Collaborative management of MPAs exemplified by COREMAP through the shared of responsibility between central and local government, providing a unique typically in the management of conservation areas in Indonesia. End of the management targeted of MPAs are sustainable fisheries and community prosperities.

1.   Introduction

Indonesia is the world’s largest archipelagic nation, with 17,480 islands, 95,181 km coastline, 3.1 sq.km territorial waters, and 2.7 sq.km of Exclusive Economic Zone. The coastal zone is a highly productive ecosystem that serves as an important base for the country’s economic growth. Over 55% of the national fishery harvest comes from capture fisheries in coastal areas. Some of the richest areas of biodiversity are found in the coastal zone of the country, and include coral reefs, mangrove swamps, seagrass beds, lagoons, and estuaries. Indonesia’s coastal zone is home to 2,500 species of mollusks, 2,000 species of crustaceans, 6 species of sea turtles, 30 species of marine mammals, over 2,000 species of fish, and extensive coral reefs.

As a part of Coral Triangle area, Indonesia has diverse and excessive coral reef with its 70 genera and 500 species of hard corals covering 32,935 sq.km or about 16.5% of the global area of coral reefs. It is considered as the second largest coral reef in the world after Great Barrier Reef in Australia. This coral reef provide a lot of benefit, this include coastal protection from storm wave, food sources and habitats of biota, genetic materials for drugs, coral and sand beaches and diving for millions of tourists.

Although coral reefs are recognized as one of the most productive ecosystems in the world, they are very susceptible to both natural and human impacts. Coral reefs are declining in many areas due to steadily increasing threats from direct human pressures and indirect effects of global climate change. Human pressures or anthropogenic stress is much more dangerous for coral reefs because it is not only permanent but has also the tendency to increase within a period of time (Sorokin, 1993). Human stressors or anthropogenic stress in South East Asia region has the highest rate compared with other regions such as Micronesia, Polynesia, GBR Australia, Hawaii, Red Sea, East Pacific, and West Atlantic (Sorokin, 1993).

In Indonesian coral reefs in particular, there are six categories of negative anthropogenic impact that may be commonly encountered (Nontji, 2002): (1) siltation as an effect from land clearing and deforestation which resulted in land erosion and runoff; (2) pollution in the river coming from industrial waste, urban development, and agricultural waste; (3) coral and sand mining for building material; (4) dredging, filling, and coastal construction activities cause negative impact by covering the reefs with sediment; (5) destructive fishing such as blasting and use of cyanide which have been widely practiced even in remote islands or National Parks; (6) extensive development of marine tourism without proper management.

Series monitoring data showed that there was siginificant improvement condition of coral reef between 1998 and 2007. In 2007, only 6.4% or the coral reef of Indonesia in excellent condition, while the rest 24.3% were good, 29.2% were poor, and 40.1% were damaged. In addition, in 2007 excellent coral reef was decreased to 5.5%, good 25.1%, poor 37.3%, and damaged 32.1% (LIPI, 2007).

                                                                                                                  

2. Marine Protected Area, Indonesia context

In response to the coastal and marine resources degradation, Government of Indonesia collaborates with other institutions safeguarding coral reef and its associate ecosystems through establishing Marine Protected Area (MPA), as it is believed as the best tool to manage fisheries resources in sustainable fashion.  MPA is defined as a water area, which is protected and managed through zoning system, to achieve sustainable management of fish resources and its environment. In fact that Indonesia has long experiences in conserving natural resources, marine resources protection program entering new paradigm since Law 31/2004 jo Law 45/2009 on fisheries formalized and Government Regulation (PP) No. 60/2007 on Fisheries Resources Conservation signed. Before these policies enacted, perspective to the conservation program were mostly focus on protection and preservation. These programs were lead conflict among communities and also community against government policies

Based on the new policies, approach in the planning and management of MPA shifted from centralistic to the decentralize approach in line with local autonomy. Government encourages local government in the provincial, district and village levels to develop and manage their own MPAs. Focus of conservation program now is not only to proctect marine biodiversity rather than multipurpose MPA while empowering local community. Shifting paradigm of teh conservation program in Indonesia could be explained as follow:

 

Table 1. Shifting paradigm on MPA planning and management in Indonesia

Aspect

Past

 

Present

Note(s)

 

Central

Local

 

Central

Local

 

Initiative

V

X

 

V

V

 

Management

V

X

 

V

V

Open to develop co-management

Evaluation

V

X

 

V

V

 

Biodiversity protection

YES

 

YES

 

Sustainable fisheries

Limited

 

YES

 

Sustainable tourism

Limited

 

YES

 

Community empowernment

Limited

 

YES

 

Policies

Mix terrestrial and marine

 

Integrated coastal and marine

MPA using own policies

 

According the Law 31/2004 jo Law 45/2009 and PP No. 60/2007, MPA Indonesia divided into four categories namely marine national park, marine tourism park, fisheries reserve, and marine nature reserve. In addition, there are also coastal and small island parks, and coastal and small island reserves as other conservation areas category cited in the Law 27/2007 on Coastal Zone and Small Island Management.

Marine national park is the only conservation area initiated and managed by national policy, while the others could be initiated and managed by national, local government or collaborative among them. In addition, refer to the IUCN category marine national park is correspond to the category II, marine tourism park fit with category V, and marine nature reserve and fisheries reserve are match with category IV of IUCN.   Objectives, management, and main focus of each MPA category are described below:

 

Table 2. Category of MPA in Indonesia

Name

Objective

Management

Main focus

IUCN

Marine National Park

Science, research, education, sustainable fisheries, tourism, and recreation

National

1.   Biodiversity

2.   Tourism

3.   Fisheries

II

Marine Tourism Pak

Tourism and recreation

National/local

1.   Tourism

2.   Biodiversity

V

Marine Nature Reserve

To protect fisheries biodiversity and its ecosystems

National/local

Fish diversity and its ecosystem

IV

Fisheries Reserve

To protect certain species

National/local

Protection of certain species

IV

 

Furthermore, regarding to the zoning system, all the MPA should have core zone at leats 2% of total area. Zoning of the MPA consists of core zone, sustainable fisheries zone, utilization zone, and other zone. Core zone is designed to focus on biodiversity protection, while other zones are to support sustainable activities such as fisheries and or marine ecotourism. Regulations related to each zone are presented in the Table below:

 

Table 3. Activities at each zone of MPA

Activity/Zone

Core

Sust.Fisheries

Utilization

Other

Research and monitoring

YES

YES

YES

YES

Education

YES

YES

YES

NO

Fisheries, selected gears

NO

YES

NO

NO

Mariculture

NO

YES

NO

NO

Marine eco-tourism

NO

YES

YES

NO

Basic infrastructures development

NO

YES

YES

YES

 

3. COREMAP II

Coral reef Rehabilitation and Management Project (COREMAP) is a long term commitment of the Government of Indonesia to better manage coral reef ecosystem.  Started through COREMAP phase I during 1999 – 2003 as initiation step, COREMAP phase II as acceleration step is designed to establish management system for coral reef resources in priority areas which has been implementing since 2004 under Ministry of Marine Affiar and Fisheries. COREMAP II aims to protect, rehabilitate, and achieve sustainable use of the Indonesian coral reefs and their associated ecosystems which, in turn, enhance the welfare of the coastal communities. Main objectives of the program are to: 1) strengthen institutional capacity to manage coral reef resources at the national and local levels; 2) preserve and rehabilitate coral reef resources by empowering community groups to actively involved in every step of management cycle; 3) increase public awareness and knowledge of local community on the sustainable management of coral reefs.

The COREMAP II is implemented through Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and funded by the Asian Development Bank for western part of Indonesia and by the World Bank for eastern part of Indonesia. The program covers 8 provinces and 15 districts: 1) North Sumatera Province (Districts of Nias, South Nias, and Central Tapanuli); 2) West Sumatera (Mentawai); 3) Riau islands (Batam, Bintan, and Natuna); 4) South Sulawesi (Pangkep and Selayar); 5) Southeast Sulawesi (Buton and Wakatobi); 6) East Nusa Tenggara (Sikka), 7) Papua (Biak); and 8) West Papua (Raja Ampat). There are three components program implemented which are institutional strengthening, community based and collaborative management, and public awareness and education.

 

In term of institutional strengthening, COREMAP II had develop policy and national strategy at national and local levels, development of human resources, project management, program coordination, and legal assistance. Community-based management focused on community empowerment, community-based coral reef management, local MPA management, supports to Marine National Park development, alternative livelihoods development, and local infrastructures. In addition, component of public awareness and education supported public awareness campaign, dissemination of information and education, sea partnership, and program support of communication.

Several project outcomes to date include contribution about 25% to the National MPAs as targeted 10 Million Ha by 2010 and 20 Million Ha by 2020, support new paradigm of MPAs establishment in Indonesia as bottom-up process has complemented give significant changing to the perspective and awareness of the local community, which could be approved by their involvement in the project activities, sharing budget and responsibilities to the success of the project activities.

 

4. Community-based and Co-Management Approach

Community-based and co-management component provides significant input to the success of the project. Local community encouraged to participate in the project activities since the beginning. Community facilitattor and village motivator worked together with community in developing vilalge-based MPA, well-known as marine sanctuary or Daerah Perlindungan Laut (DPL) and formalized through village regulation. In addition to the establishment of DPL, head of the village also assigned village leaders as DPL management board, who take responsibility to manage the DPL based on DPL management plan.

There are five steps in establishing the community-based marine sanctuary, started with socialization until signation of the village ordinance. The first step is introduction and socialization of the need and importance conservation program, gather baseline information and deliver key information of the village which could be carried out in 1-6 months. After that, it is need about 2-4 months to improve community capacity through community meetings, trainings, information sharing, and cross visits, then conducting public consultations 3-6 months, drafting village regulation and approval about 3-6 months. Finally, after approval of the village regulation, DPL management board will socialize and implement the managemenet  of DPL which need additional 6-18 months.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In order to scale up these village MPAs to the district level, project management unit and project implementing unit (PIU) assisted by district consultants (WB) and regional advisers (ADB) conduct program synchronizations. District-based MPA, in paralel, will accomodate the villages MPAs as core zones or utilization zones. In the national level, national coordinator unit (WB) or project management office (PMO) assisted by consultants support local government to have MPAs enactment through minister decree. This scalling up  processes could be drawn as Figure 1 below:

 

 

Figure 1. Scalling up village MPA and co-management process

 

 

5. Challenges and Lessons learned

Indonesia has long experiences in the development community-based and co-management of the conservation areas executed by government, non-government organizations, international projects, and even by local community groups. However, through COREMAP II some challenges could be emphasized that:

       Difficulties in reaching agreements among communities due to different perception level on conservation concepts and issues.

       More takes time due to facing various meeting levels from grass-roots and need facilitating from national/provincial level

       Lack of understanding on marine conservation issues in local government and community leaders

       Sectoral interest in government officers makes difficult in program integration and project coordination

 

Lesson has been learnt from the impelementation of COREMAP II are:

1.    Creating the public trust on community-engagement is important as early as possible since the beginning of the program in order to they well informed the program objectives which finally they interested in to involved in all program activities. That is can be shortened duration of MPAs establishment process

2.    Generating self-enthusiasm through institutional strengthening in communities is essential in order to they can manage the marine conservation area autonomously even after the end of project

3.    Positioning the role of communities as a partner in all activities and to obtain their viewpoints which can being integrated in program management

4.    Local wisdoms on management of marine resources which already exist in communities are important to be appreciated and strengthened through village regulations

COREMAP program in Indonesia is an unique program because of wide geographic coverage, Nationally coordinated but decentralized in implementations, multi-stakeholder inclusion, direct quantifiable fisheries benefit, and sound financial management. The process required  the institutional strengthening communities as well as local governments that MPAs can be manage sustainably.

COREMAP I and II have helped to build strong basis for policies and regulations to manage national coral reef program, in the forms of Strategic Plan and Government Regulation (national and local levels). The program has significantly contributed to sustainable management and utilization of coral reefs, strengthening community awareness and income generation. Besides, COREMAP gave significant benefit in increasing public awareness and reduced rate of coral reefs degradation.

The COREMAP’s contributions on establishing of MPAs has significant on MPAs national target.

With a new paradigm, and in line with emerging of marine issues, that have been strengthening the local wisdoms values of marine resource utilization, as well as increasing the sense of belonging in the management of marine resources in a sustainable manner at local community level (grass-roots) and local/regional governments. Collaborative management of MPAs exemplified by COREMAP through the shared of responsibility between central and local government, providing a unique typically in the management of conservation areas in Indonesia. End of the management targeted of MPAs are sustainable fisheries and community prosperities.

References:

Nontji, A. 2002.  Coral reefs of Indonesia: past, present and future.  Proceeding 9th International Coral Reef Symposium, Bali, Indonesia.  23-27 October 2002. Vol 1: 17-27.

Sorokin, Y.I.  1993.  Coral Reef Ecology.  Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Germany.

COREMAP. Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Program – Phase II. www.coremap.or.id; www.coremap-2.com

Suraji, Kawasan Konservasi Perairan: Paradigma dan Perkembangannya, http://surajis.multiply.com




[1] Head Section of Protection and Preservation Area, Directorate of Aquatic and Marine Resource Conservation, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries,  Project Operations Manager COREMAP II, e-mail: suraji_a@yahoo.com

[2] Head of Conservation Area, Directorate of Aquatic and Marine Resource Conservation, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries,  Project Manager COREMAP II, e-mail: riyanbas@yahoo.com

[3] MPA System Specialist, Coral Triangle Support Partnership, e-mail: handokoadi@yahoo.com 

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